In vivo and in vitro studies suggest that PFOA and PFOS
are endocrine disruptors (Du et al.
3 [micro]g/L) for PFOS
or PFOA, or 7 [micro]g/L for perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (MDH, 2008).
But overall PFOss concentrations worldwide have been on the decline in other Greenlandic animals.
Traditional nanocoatings with high levels of water and oil repellency are derived from long molecular chains which contain traces of PFOA and PFOS
Use the PFOS
program in ruminant feed formulations.
Breast milk contaminated with PFOA and PFOS
was detected in 98% of Massachusetts women participating in a 2004 study.
and PFOA are chemicals widely used to stain proof fabrics and carpets.
is used in firefighting foam and cleaning products and was a key ingredient in 3M's Scotchgard until it was replaced about six years ago.
Bottlenose dolphins, manatees, polar bears, seals, sea lions and other marine wildlife also have PCBs, DDT, PBDEs, PFOS
and the other pollutants in their tissues and bloodstreams.
Last year Margaret Beckett, then Environment Secretary, drafted legislation to ban the importation of firefighting foam containing Perfluorooctane sulfonate - or PFOS
- into Britain as it was considered harmful to humans and animals.
3M took a proactive step and voluntarily phased out PFOS
when faced with the evidence of its accumulation in the environment and its potential toxicity.
The new method uses water and iron powder to efficiently decompose PFOS
into fluoride ion.