PHPL certification has two types of final decision: (1) Pass (when the aggregate score is categorised as either good or intermediate) and (2) Fail (when the aggregate score is categorised as poor).
As previously mentioned, PHPL is mandatory for all forest companies that are granted concessions in state production forests.
Nonetheless, CAR datasets of PHPL certification were not accessible for our research.
Our study was conducted in early 2016; we therefore used PHPL certificates that were issued until December 2015.
Seventy-eight concessions were audited against PHPL standards through December 2015; the results are presented in Figure 1.
As previously mentioned, a concession is still granted the PHPL certificate as long as the poor grade of the indicators does not come from dominant verifiers.
Several PHPL indicators are interlinked across the four aspects of sustainability.
Core social issues such as recognition of local (and/or indigenous) rights, access and power, as well as social justice, remain superficial in PHPL certification, in both the standards and audit findings.
A review of the audit summaries reveals that the decline was specifically associated with codominant verifiers that still allowed for the issuance of PHPL certificates as long as the minimum aggregate score was achieved.
PHPL certification combines system-based and performance-based certification, requiring forest companies to fulfil two aspects: (1) the availability of related documents, and (2) implementation in the field.
Since Masood Hamid would religiously celebrate the birthdays of all his colleagues, Ali Hasan, the new Director Marketing at PHPL
thought it would be appropriate to celebrate his birthday too - even if he was not around - and invited his family, his co-workers and industry colleagues on the occasion.