Contrary to the usual positive PLAP
staining expected in Dysgerminoma, the positivity was a mere 44.
It is from the principles of assimilation, accommodation and equilibration put forward by Piaget that PLAP
comes into being.
, OCT4, NANOG, D2-40, hCG, and CK(AE1/AE3).
Biologic markers, including AFP, HCG, PLAP
, and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) are valuable in continued follow up of the patient.
In our case there was positivity for PLAP
, EMA and Cytokeratin but AFP was negative although the serum levels were raised.
Expression of PLAP
, OCT3/4, and SALL4 in EC is shared with dysgerminoma.
in epidermoid cyst Atypical germ OCT3/4, PLAP
, CD117, [SCF.
Selected immunohistochemical markers can also be helpful to distinguish the different germ cell-tumor elements: dysgerminomas reveal immunohistochemical expression of PLAP
, OCT3/4 and c-kit; embryonal carcinomas show positivity for CD30, PLAP
, a-fetoprotein, keratin, and human chorionic gonadotropin; yolk sac tumors are immunoreactive for a-fetoprotein, PLAP
, alkaline phosphatase, and keratins; and choriocarcinomas show expression of human chorionic gonadotropin, cytokeratin, PLAP
, and human placental lactogen.
In these 2 studies, the main finding is not only that OCT4 is a highly sensitive and specific marker of ovarian dysgerminoma, and testicular seminoma and embryonal carcinoma, respectively, but also that the OCT4 staining pattern was nuclear (in contrast to PLAP
and c-Kit, which show characteristically cell membrane staining), with uniformly strong staining intensity and staining extent of greater than 90%.
Laboratory tests Serum PLAP
can be Serum AFP is elevated.
Lichtenstein's PLAPS index measures the distance between the pleural line and the lung line at the posterolateral point.