PPAR[gamma], peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma; RXR, retinoid X receptor; PPRE
, PPAR response element; HO-1, heme oxygenase 1; SOD, superoxide dismutase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase; CAT, catalase; CYP, cytochrome P-450; GSH, glutathione; GCEE, gamma- glutamylcysteine ethyl ester; NF-[kappa]B, nuclear factor-kappaB; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; COX-2, cyclooxygenase-2.
consists of hexameric Direct Repeat (DR) pattern (AGGTCA) with a single nucleotide between each hexameric motif.
Focusing on only the Democrats, PPRES
and #BILLS are significant at the .
The pleiotropic effects of peroxisome proliferators are dependent on the existence of functional PPARs and PPREs in the promoter regions of genes regulated by these agents.
PPAR[Alpha]s from all of these species had similar binding affinities for rat acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) PPRE and comparable activities in reporter gene assays, indicating their functional similarity.
In the rat, ACO responds to PPs via a functional PPRE
, whereas the equivalent gene in humans does not (31,32).