PTLVPrimate T-Lymphotropic Virus
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Phylogenetic analysis of 881-bp tax sequences (Figure 4) from these 2 monkeys with other PTLVs, using bovine leukemia virus as an outgroup, inferred a new lineage with high bootstrap support (99%) from the diversity of other PTLV-3 subtypes (larger tax sequences representing PTLV-3 subtype C were not available for inclusion in this analysis), which suggests a long, independent evolution of this divergent virus.
We found that the molecular clock hypothesis was not rejected for the 881-bp alignment of PTLV and bovine leukemia virus tax sequences in both PAUP* (http://paup.
These discoveries demonstrate that the diversity of PTLV is far from understood and that zoonotic infection with STLV continues in persons exposed to NHPs (7).
Our detection of a 7% prevalence of STLV infection among hunted wild monkeys is comparable to the 8%-11% seroreactivity to PTLV recently found in monkey and ape samples collected mostly at urban bushmeat markets in Cameroon (9,25).