The present study is the first to explore the interactions between the autonomic response to experimental pain, endogenous analgesia, and PTSR in patients with acute WAD.
Abbreviations: ANOVA = analysis of variance, BDI = Beck Depression Inventory, CPM = conditioned pain modulation, HF = high-frequency power, HRV = heart rate variability, IES = Impact of Event Scale, LF = low-frequency power, NDI = Neck Disability Index, PCS = Pain Catastrophizing Scale, PPT = pressure pain threshold, PTSR = posttraumatic stress reaction, PVAQ = Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire, RMSSD = root-mean-square of successive differences between interbeat intervals, SD = standard deviation, SDNN = standard deviation of interbeat intervals, TS = temporal summation, WAD = whiplashassociated disorder.
One thing not to be overlooked is that the link cost function can be distorted for the case when metrics such as RSS, HMRR, hop distance, and PTSR are corrupted by environmental factors during the training process.
HMRR and PTSR depend on channel contention between nodes and fluctuate dynamically in time.
In this paper, we compensate the measurement errors in HMRR and PTSR using 1-step ahead prediction method.
A training packet to measure PTSR is sent every 100 milliseconds.
From experimental results, we can infer that PTSR decreases as [eta] increases.
Calculate mean square error between target PTSRs and estimated PTSRs of neighbor RNs as seen in Eq.