Furthermore, a meta-analysis by Livingston and Boyd (2010) shows that life satisfaction in PWMI is negatively associated with different measures of stigma.
2013) showed that affect balance was negatively associated with stigma in PWMI.
Traditionally, the well-being measures used in stigma in PWMI have been self-esteem, self-efficacy, life satisfaction, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, all of which have been found to be significantly related to stigma (Link et al.
The relationship of these four types of perceived discrimination with internalized stigma has never been tested before in PWMI.
The researchers found that female students had less need for social distance from PWMI and had greater knowledge of mental illness.
Gender differences in attitudes toward PWMI merits further examination, as the previous studies did not indicate why these differences exist.
Like gay men and lesbians, PWMI have been discriminated against in society.
The authors hypothesized that (a) gender would predict authoritarian (viewing PWMI as a class of people inferior to normal individuals) and social restrictiveness (desire to restrict PWMI from society) opinions about mental illness (Figure 1, Path c), and (b) the relationship between gender and authoritarian and social restrictive opinions about mental illness would be at least partially mediated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice (Path c').
Our study showed a peak incidence and percentage in the age group of 60 and above for IWMI without PWMI.
Our study showed 24% of PWMI patients to be smokers and none of the females in this study group were smokers.
Palpitation was essentially an important presenting symptom in PWMI occurring in around 61% of the individuals.
Whereas bradycardia in IWMI without PWMI in our study is 15%.