I think that will eventually be true as PICV costs continue to fall, and their long-term reliability is proven over time, but I have had too much success with pressure-dependent ball valves to fully endorse using PICVs for all applications.
There was only one manufacturer of PICVs in 2002, and they were expensive and not commonly used.
By "balanced" I am referring to Options 2 (CBVs) and 3 (AFLVs) above, and to Option 6 (PICVs) for PICVs that have flow limiting capability.
But PICVs that have flow limiting capability can suffer the same problems as AFLVs; accordingly, the flow limit setpoints should be cranked up to the maximum possible.
The most common PICVs combine an integral differential pressure regulator with a standard two-way control valve as shown in Figure 3.
Manufacturers also claim that PICVs increase chilled water [DELTA]T.
The author compared the actual cost premium for PICVs versus V-port ball control valves for air handler chilled water valves on three recent building projects and found that the average cost increase was insignificant at $0.
15) The genome of PiCV has been sequenced, (16,17) and, on the basis of similarities in their genomes, PiCV is classified, together with psittacine beak and feather disease virus, porcine circovirus types 1 and 2, goose circovirus, canary circovirus, and duck circovirus, as a member of the genus Circovirus in the family Circoviridae.
To date, no reports have described the isolation and propagation of PiCV in cultured cells.
29,30) This has led to speculation that the pathogenicity of PiCV may be similarly affected.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of 6-week-old pigeons (an age at which YPDS is usually observed under field conditions) with a commercially available paratyphus vaccine on the progression of PiCV infection and detection of PiCV in cloacal swab, blood, and tissue samples.
According to their designers, the latest HERZ PICVs
, which are suitable for both residential and commercial HVAC systems, can deliver energy savings of 20% to 25% compared to conventional devices.