1990, Nasals in Proto-Uralic
and in Pre-Proto-Uralic
Only Indo-European loans are possible in Proto-Uralic
and these are: aja-(ma) 'to drive', pelga-(ma) 'to be afraid of, soon 'sinew', soud-(ma) 'to row', too-(ma) 'to bring', vesi 'water' (the loan relation of these stems is not certain for phonetic or semantic reasons).
He shows how the comparative method was used to reconstruct the Proto-Indo-European phonological system and then proceeds to provide sketches of Proto-Kartvelian, Proto-Afrasian, Proto-Uralic
, Proto-Dravidian, Proto-Altaic, and Proto-Nostratic phonologies.
The substitution of *-m- for Aryan *-my- is accounted for by the fact that the cluster *-mj- was probably not permitted in Uralic; there is no etymology suggesting such a cluster in Proto-Uralic
or even in those later proto-languages which have generally preserved clusters well (Proto-Saami, Proto-Finnic and Proto-Samoyed).
In the entry section, the fully reconstructed Proto-Uralic
(or of a narrower range, Proto-Finno-Ugric) is compared with the partly reconstructed Old Chinese (the roots were attested in the Chinese writing system, their pronunciations have been reconstructed).
But importantly, the Finnic and Mari cognates of PSam *ammV- show that this derivative was already formed in Proto-Uralic
Hakkinen 2007; Reshetnikov, Zhivlov 2011; Aikio 2012), the differences of opinion do not encompass basic sound correspondences and the major outlines of Proto-Uralic
There are 363 common etymological units of Sino-Uralic corpus, of which 122 are found only in Finnic, 50 are found in Proto-Finno-Volgaic, 28 are found in Proto-Finno-Permic, 91 are found in Proto-Finno-Ugric, 72 are found in Proto-Uralic
Hajdu also shares the view that Proto-Uralic
had already had two possibilities of the formation of the 3P for the verbs: with and without a verbal inflection.
2001, The So-Called Uralic Original Home (Urheimat) and the So-Called Proto-Uralic
1) At the same time all those who have studied this question agree that the object was not always marked, hence Proto-Uralic
must have possessed the category of unmarked object.
Recent novel views were expressed by Tapani Salminen who has written: "The current view is that there were three grammatical cases in the Proto-Uralic