In considering the acceptability curve and the threshold of $50 000 per unit increase of QALY
, the data states a 93% chance that the additional cost of SNM, when compared to BonT-A, is less than $50 000 per unit increase in QALY
during the 5-year period (Table 4, Fig.
Assessing cost-effectiveness in healthcare: history of the $50,000 per QALY
It was surprising that the hysterectomy QALY
was higher, considering that hysterectomy is a highly invasive surgery.
For the probabilistic sensitivity analysis of the MPR [right arrow] QALY
proxy, the median ICER from the 1,000 bootstrapped samples and the 1,000 sampled proxy values was $27,879.
are calculated by estimating how much a given adverse event--for example, venous thromboembolism, along with its attendant treatment and potential further complications --would diminish a theoretical year of otherwise perfect health.
is equal to one year of life in perfect health.
The remaining 11 papers were examined using a data extraction form constructed to capture epidemiological and costing input parameters, (7-17) assumptions about the vaccine and its efficacy, QALY
estimation and modelling assumptions.
A review of the literature up to 1997 found that the cost utility of medical interventions varied considerably with a median QALY
gained ratio of $2,000 for vaccines, $6,000 for medical care delivery, $10,000 for surgical interventions, $11,000 for pharmaceuticals, $12,000 for screening, $20,000 for health education/counseling, $20,000 for diagnostics, and $40,000 for devices.
However, if the threshold value for the cost per QALY
has been set appropriately, using a technology that does not meet this standard implies some degree of waste of resources and money.
At US$127 600 or R932 437 per QALY
gained, it far exceeds the 2010 costeffectiveness threshold for SA of US$30 000 per QALY
used by the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health.
31 gain in QALY
and a $14,202 hike in direct medical costs, but the expense was offset by lifetime societal benefits of $24,024, including $23,121 from both higher wages and better job prospects.
He admits that the task would be daunting, but thinks that if we could only review just half of the various medical conditions and treatments and calculate the cost/benefit ratios on QALY
, a considerable benefit could be derived.