7] In our study, there were elevated ST2 levels in RA patients' serum and synovial fluid, and in the subsequent in vitro study, we found that soluble ST2 could suppress not only IL-33 but also IL-1[sz] in resting RASFs.
However, in the RASFs activated by TNF-a plus IL-1[sz], the negative effects of soluble ST2 extended to TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-8.
In summary, elevated and disease activity-associated soluble ST2 showed a negative regulatory function on IL-33 and inhibited expressions of IL-33-induced IL-1[sz], TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-8 in RASFs, which suggested that soluble ST2 might serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for RA.
At home, Spaniards increasingly sought to develop the many sectors of the RASF.
John Ciofalo argues that Francisco de Goya revealed such a negative attitude about Floridablanca's role as art critic, protector and administrator of the RASF in his portrait of the count from 1784 [Figure 2].
The emphasis put on "utility" by the RASF through its various nationalistic undertakings did not leave much opportunity for individual artistic expression.
By focusing on preservation, the RASF helped to institutionalize those aspects of Spanish culture and the artistic past deemed worthy of attention.
In particular, Ponz discusses the enlightened ruler's transfer of the RASF to Alcala street, the founding of other art academies, and the arrival of prominent artists in Spain, including Corrado Giaquinto (1703-66), Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696-1770), and Mengs.
19) Moreover, he participated in other Academy projects and received important positions within the RASF.
Vargas also delivered "Principios y progresos del arte de grabado" at the prize-giving ceremony of the RASF in 1790; significantly, it was the first academic address on the subject of the state of printmaking in Spain.
Mengs had arrived in Madrid in late 1761 and because of professional jealousies among the RASF council and native artists, Mengs had not been invited to become a member of the Academy (82-4).
27) Cean Bermudez also contributed to the many aesthetic debates circulating in the RASF.