118) See Epstein & O'Halloran, supra note 76, at 223; see also Jide Nzelibe, The Myth of the Free Trade Constitution 1-2 (unpublished paper) (on file with author) (describing the collective action view of the RTAA
as the conventional narrative).
186) As Michael Gilligan argues, the genius of the RTAA
was to tie the desires of exporters for access to new markets to the interests of import consumers, turning powerful exporters into a counterweight against import-competing firms interested in protectionism.
One reason why the RTAA
and the TEA were so successful in reducing tariffs is that they empowered the President, who, with his national constituency, is generally considered more pro-free trade than Congress.
can be a valuable tool when used in a positive way within a coaching-oriented environment.
Before the RTAA
, the President could implement international tariff negotiations only by submitting them to Congress in the form of a treaty.
Neither the AFL nor the CIO took a position on the RTAA
or its extension in 1937.
This analysis of the RTAA
will be familiar to many readers, but Empowering Exporters makes the case more convincingly than others.
A key difference between the Trade Expansion Act and the previous RTAA
was the manner in which it dealt with the issue of protection.
allowed the president to negotiate tariff-reduction agreements with other countries without obtaining Congressional approval (although the RTAA
itself required periodic renewal).
The standard account of support for the RTAA
asserts that Congress collectively learned a lesson from the Smoot-Hawley tariff.
has a new use and lease agreement that provides the airport with a larger cost recovery base, providing more cushion to volume declines.
Proposals And Any Addenda Thereto Shall Be Submitted By The Proposer In Sealed Hard Copy Form And Be Received And Time Recorded In The Rtaa
Purchasing And Materials Management Division Not Later Than 2:00 P.