To assess the influence of ENSO on the occurrence of SAUS temperature records, additional simulations were generated by driving the weather@home model with composite SST patterns representative of each of the three phases of ENSO: El Nino, Neutral, and La Nina (see online supplemental material for details).
For brevity, this study focuses on SAUS because this region experienced exceptional October heat (Fig.
2a shows the model-derived distributions of SAUS October average maximum temperature for the various forcing scenarios.
The corresponding FAR estimates for exceeding the previous SAUS temperature record are shown in Fig.
The most recent volume that provides an annual series for most of the period 1863-1920 is the 1922 edition (after this SAUS stopped reporting alcohol consumption for the remainder of the 1920s, apparently on the assumption that National Prohibition made updating consumption statistics unnecessary or unfruitful).
Series produced using SAUS figures have the virtue that they take account of consumption of both domestically produced and imported products, while subtracting exports.
As a result of these evasions, the historian of the distilled spirits tax considers the figures published in SAUS (and in Table 1) for the years 1865-75 to underreport spirits consumption by an unknown amount.
Another problem with the distilled spirits figures reported annually by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue and presented in SAUS is that the totals include for the years before 1907 unknown amounts of spirits denatured for use for industrial or medicinal purposes.
It should be clear, however, that the consumption totals reported by SAUS are only approximations.
The early reports of beverage alcohol consumption found in SAUS are not accompanied by reports of the number of "legal" - i.
Keller's statistics were drawn from SAUS via Jellinek (1947) and have been used for the historical series disseminated by the Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System (Austin and Roizen, 1993).
The census estimate of wine production in 1900 was slightly higher than the estimate provided to SAUS (U.