Consequently, the basic claim made in overviews of the field published over the last 25 years remains largely the same: There is a need for systematic, ongoing, and rigorous scholarship that spans different SLTE contexts and incorporates lessons from general teacher education inquiry (Bernhardt & Hammadou, 1987; Johnson, 2006; Schulz, 2000; Tedick, 2009, 2013; Velez-Rendon, 2002; Wilbur, 2005).
One consistent concern within SLTE research has been the knowledge base for language teaching and what it does (or should) comprise.
In fact, the claims made about advanced proficiency and the SLTE knowledge base are largely inferred from second language acquisition research on the relationship between the quantity and quality of language input and student learning (Chamblass, 2012).
Numerous narrative literature reviews exist on the work of F&J and other significant contributions to SLTE (e.
F&J's (1998) reconceptualized SLTE Knowledge Base
In their 1998 article dedicated to theory and practices of SLTE, F&J raised several important issues regarding the nature of the knowledge base of SLTE, and proposed a new social constructivist framework.
Apparently, and despite all hindrances usually posed by teaching contexts, the daily interaction with the school setting and with the students is likely to compensate for some aspects addressed by SLTE programs, which usually focus on the theoretical elements of teaching to the detriment of the more functional ones (Buarque, 2015; Gatti, 2014).
The scholars also point to the fact that SLTE should adopt a more collaborative approach, and investigate with practitioners instead of doing research about them.
Granting practitioners the conditions to become part of the actual enrichment of the knowledge base of SLTE would mean recognizing their lived experiences (Bruner, 1997, 1998; Johnson, 2009; Oss, 2013; Telles, 2002) as an actual source of sharable knowledge.
To us, this type of dialogic exchange is an important part of SLTE programs because we understand teacher development to be a collaborative project of professional meaning-making (Bailey et al.
It is important that students in SLTE programs consider very closely how they approach the concept of culture in their ELT because global complexities render problematic conventional boundaries of language, culture, and nation (Risager, 2007).
As Paola studied in her SLTE program, colonialism benefits from essentialist hierarchies that place people and their cultural practices in specific levels of privilege, and those levels are presented as intractable.