JTF-CS is a standing joint task force
comprised of active, Reserve and Guard members from the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines and Coast Guard, as well as civilian personnel, and is commanded by a federalized National Guard officer.
In response to the American Civil Liberties Union and other critics, the unified command plan issued in 1999 recommended organizing a standing Joint Task Force for Civil Support (JTF/CS) under U.
Moreover, NORTHCOM could serve as a model for restructuring other unified commands in the future by using the concept of standing joint task force headquarters.
As an example, one or more standing joint task force headquarters responsible for daily engagement could plan for operations in sub-Saharan Africa and ensure familiarity with local countries and leading personalities; improve the speed, flexibility, and quality of American responses to events; and be assigned to one of two geographic commands with responsibility for emergent contingency operations.
Missile defense units could be integrated with NORAD since they would be purely defensive or separately organized as a standing joint task force, although the former may be more advisable given likely Canadian participation in some if not all aspects of the future missile defense system and given the nature of a broader evolving threat.
Arrangements will be worked out with regard to both Pacific and Atlantic defense responsibilities, perhaps in the form of standing joint task forces reporting through Maritime Defense Zone commanders or the commander of Pacific Fleet Forces and his counterpart in the Atlantic.