SIGMA]DDT concentrations of the THEP are consistently higher than concentrations in the TGP but also decline over time.
The p,p'-DDE to p,p'-DDT ratio increases with time for all populations except the THEP (Figure 1B).
The total uptake in the THEP exceeds the total uptake in the TGP by about a factor of 5, and total uptake in the NHEP exceeds uptake in the NGP by a factor of 12.
Dietary uptake is the dominant exposure route for the TGP, but the dominant route for the THEP is inhalation: the median estimate of exposure by inhalation in the THEP is 2.
001) differences between the TGP and THEP and the NGP and NHEP, respectively.
A key finding of our study is that exposure and levels calculated for the THEP are the highest among the four subpopulations examined and that they are due largely to uptake of [SIGMA]DDT via inhalation.
Our results corroborate this and indicate that under the assumption of similar dietary uptake for the TGP and the THEP, [SIGMA]DDT taken up via inhalation explains most of the difference in body concentrations between the TGP and the THEP.
The low contribution of the aquatic diet to total uptake in the TGP and the THEP relative to the Northern populations is consistent with previous findings (Kannan et al.
No estimates of intake or uptake for the THEP were found in the literature.
Although the ranges of DDT uptake that we determined here are not as wide as the true ranges, in the THEP and TGP there are situations where the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 20 [micro]g/kg/day (Bouwman et al.
In contrast, omitting the inhalation pathway in the THEP would cause a reduction in exposure by a factor of 3.