Before examining the roles played by clubs in the progress of the Chinese in sport, the following will briefly introduce the sporting activities of some representative organizations: Jakarta's chtnh, SMH, and THHK.
Apart from sports, THHK was also active in cultural and social activities.
Throughout the decades after Indonesia's independence, THHK schools reflected the struggle of the country's Chinese to belong to the new nation; to be accepted as one of the ethnic groups which form Indonesia.
Adding another dimension to Iskandar Jusuf's perspective on the THHK school, Didi Kwartanada places his focus on its connections outside the Dutch East Indies and its representation of new modernity at the time, when the conventional modernity was a concept closely associated with Dutch social and cultural image.
Through the press, news of revival and reform activities in the Indies spread across the Nanyang, encouraging some Chinese in Malaya to donate funds to the THHK and eliciting strong moral support from as far away as Hong Kong.
According to Lie Kim Hok, a THHK leader and journalist, Kang on arriving in Batavia failed to comprehend why local leaders who claimed they were Confucian did not want a shrine to Confucius placed in their association building.
For the expansion and impact of the THHK see Lea Williams, Overseas Chinese nationalism: The genesis of the pan-Chinese movement in Indonesia, 1900-16 (Glencoe: Free Press, 1960).