Information about the structure of the TOQ was taken from Sarason et al.
Concerning the TOQ, in accordance with the initial psychometric evaluation by Sarason et al.
The Measurement of cognitive Interference and the Use of TOQ in Sport Settings
The results concerning the evaluation of the TOQ were not straightforward.
However, our approach allowed us to use psychometrically sound sections of the original TOQ.
Since 1978, when cognitive interference was first studied by means of structured questionnaires, research has mostly been conducted using either the TOQ or the Cognitive Interference Questionnaire (CIQ; an instrument evaluating cognitive interference as a state characteristic, which also includes a 'task irrelevant thoughts' scale identical to the TOQ; see Sarason et al.
Due to the very small amount of research using the TOQ and CIQ instruments, and in particular in sport, it does not seem appropriate to draw firm conclusions at this stage.
Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the TOQ While performing I think about: 1 [*] 2 how poorly I am doing .