In addition to omission error and commission error, TOVA detects response time, response variability, response sensitivity, multiple response, anticipatories, and postcommission response time.
The TOVA was administered in a place free from noise and distractions.
The TOVA was administered after verbal instruction was given and adolescents had the opportunity to practice for two minutes.
The final diagnosis of ADHD was made by a team of experienced clinical psychologists, and was based on adolescents' TOVA performance (ADHD score [less than or equal to] -1.
Second, two-way ANOVA was used to examine differences between the delinquent and control groups and between ADHD and nonADHD adolescents in terms of IQ, TOVA performance, behavioral symptoms of ADHD, and self-esteem.
Table 4 shows that the delinquent group performed more poorly than the control group on the TOVA, except for response time (RT).
Delinquent adolescents and adolescents with ADHD were found to have lower IQ scores, poorer TOVA performance, more severe problem behaviors, and lower self-esteem than nondelinquent adolescents and adolescents without ADHD.
Subjective reports, clinical evaluations, and repeat TOVA testing showed that 85% of subjects improved, regardless of whether they had a formal diagnosis of ADHD.
In subjects who initially had poor TOVA scores in errors of omission, which measures attentiveness, and errors of commission, which measures impulse control, scores rose by 2 standard deviations," he said.