However, due to the nature of the TWBI program, this block of time was split equally between teaching reading in Spanish and English.
The first research question addressed the overall effect of PALS within a TWBI program on the reading fluency of first-grade students.
This study examined the efficacy of PALS as a supplemental reading instruction program to improve the reading fluency subskills of first-grade students in TWBI programs.
The present study extends these findings to culturally and linguistically diverse first graders in TWBI classrooms.
This initial validation of the efficacy of PALS in TWBI classrooms makes an important contribution, particularly given the larger range of language proficiency within Hispanic participants in the present study.
Differential Response to PALS Treatment for ELL and EP Students in TWBI Classrooms
Given the uniqueness of the TWBI setting, it is encouraging that both ELL and EP students responded positively to PALS.
These results broaden prior research to a new population, linguistically diverse students in TWBI classrooms.
Therefore, as a supplement to existing reading programs, not only does PALS appear to improve reading levels for both ELL and EP students in TWBI classrooms, but the enjoyment of learning PALS and working with partners may lead to sustained program implementation.
The results demonstrate that PALS is a viable option for teaching reading skills in TWBI first-grade classrooms.
Additionally, our study sample was limited to TWBI and to Hispanic students.