18] This recognises the importance of CDs as a cause of stillbirths and neonatal deaths, and their contribution to the U5MR
and attaining Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 to reduce child mortality by two-thirds.
The IMCI strategy was developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) in the early 1990s to reduce the U5MR
through the integrated management of common childhood diseases, in contrast to vertical programmes that focused on individual disease.
13) International agencies and public health researchers generated estimates showing that IMR and U5MR
continued to be high.
Nigeria with a higher GNIpc of $1140 has a higher U5MR
of 143 per 1000 live-births ranked 12th highest in the world compared with Ghana with a much lower GNIpc of $700 and yet a lower U5MR
of 74 per 1000 live-births ranked 43rd depicting qualitatively, for Nigeria and Ghana comparatively, +ve PG and -ve PG respectively.
This led to a reduction in U5MR
from 64 per 1000 live births to 23.
The daily U5MR
was calculated by taking the number of deaths per 10,000 children per day for the 6-month period of December 2009--May 2010.
Turning to the basic welfare of children, the national trends in Under Five Mortality (U5MR
) in South Africa are extremely disturbing, especially because the U5MR
is generally regarded as an excellent indicator of the overall quality of care achieved by health systems and, more generally, of human welfare.
12) Under-5 mortality rates (U5MR
) vary substantially among provinces and districts; for example, in 2008 the U5MR
in Western Cape was 31/1 000 live births, while it was almost fourfold higher in the Free State (117/1 000).
05) and mortality estimates during the journey appear to have exceeded emergency thresholds (CMR [greater than or equal to] 1 and U5MR
[greater than or equal to] 2).
Malawi on the other hand has dramatically reduced its U5MR
from 225 in 1990 to 100 in 2010 with the wealthiest children getting access to 65% of the necessary interventions and the poorest accessing 62% (ibid).
Recent data from the 1998 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) showed that, far from declining, the U5MR
increased by as much as 25 percent from the late 1980s to the mid 1990s .
MoH data there has been a decrease in IMR, U5MR
MMR and TFR, an increase