special operations and allied elements began moving into the countryside outside Mogadishu and the major cities to facilitate food deliveries and to garner intelligence for the UNITAF
on potentially hostile clan militias.
UNOSOM II was far smaller than UNITAF
, with a maximum of 12,000 troops.
had a six month mandate, in May 1993 it handed over the operation to the UN.
Besides, the UN authorized UNITAF
to use "all necessary measures" to secure the area (The United Nations.
Military officers were seconded to Oakley's staff, and UNITAF
provided senior, experienced liaison officers to meet regularly with USLO, UN, and NGO agencies.
mission transitioned to UNOSOM in May 1993, divisions surfaced within the U.
IDB has since provided six more earth stations for the United States and other governments participating in UNITAF
The United States' active participation to UNITAF
and its efforts to end famine in Somalia in 1992-1993, to secure humanitarian convoys, and to reduce violence were genuinely based on humanitarian feelings towards atrocities in a Horn of Africa country.
led operation to establish a secure environment for the delivery of humanitarian aid (UNITAF
), the Security Council authorized the creation of the UN Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II) to take over when UNITAF
6) In Somalia, Operation Restore Hope and UNITAF
cost the United States more than $1 billion, (7) and the intervention in Haiti, approximately $2 billion.
Unified Task Force, UNITAF
, in Somalia, or the MNF in Haiti), by ensuring that interoperable communications equipment and procedures were available, along with extensive use of liaison and coordination center arrangements, the United States assured effective coalition operations.
Their staff consisted only of that assembled hastily for them by UNITAF
from its component units which would stay for UNOSOM II and they received only weak support from the inexperienced, undermanned, and overworked UN Secretariat staff.