This study focuses not only on the development of a UPBL system, but also on proving its usefulness by investigating the progress of students' questioning abilities.
In other words, combining the results of both the unconditional and conditioned HLM models from Tables 6 and 7, we can conclude that all students benefited from UPBL, but that the experienced 6th graders had greater improvement in their questioning abilities than the novice 5th graders.
The experimental results show that the rubrics used to assess questioning ability had reasonable reliability and validity; moreover, the UPBL approach was helpful to both experienced and novice students in improving their questioning ability.
The UPBL research stages Date Stages Activities 2011/11 Test 1 1st CSILA administered 2011/12 Anchored a.
Furthermore, measurement statistics are provided in the Green Lab (Vogel, Kurti, Milrad, & Kerren, 2011) in UPBLS to present the collected data (see Figure 4).
Based on the UPBLS triangle model, the research combined both the collaborative learning and ubiquitous learning approaches.
From the ecology-investigating activity, it was also found that UPBLS functions as both a learning tool and a stimulus for question raising and peer interactions.