Generous support from unions across the midwest, together with weekly strike benefits of $55 a week from the UPIU, also helped maintain morale.
When the three mills struck in the summer of 1987, UPIU leaders intended that other IP mills would join them as their contracts expired.
Unable to extend the strike, the UPIU focused its efforts on a corporate campaign that aimed to exert outside pressure on IP.
At the 1988 UPIU convention President Wayne Glenn ran for reelection as a supporter of the strike against an opponent who argued that the union should cut its losses.
But if the UPIU leadership was not guilty of outright betrayal, it never took the risks necessary to bring the strike to a successful conclusion either.
The UPIU and USWA leadership made different choices because they faced different institutional environments.
Company chair Sofjan Wanandi, once an adviser to top Indonesian generals, is today involved in "tourist development" in occupied East Timor, according to the UPIU.
The priest has denied that the Indonesian government had killed survivors of an attack on unarmed demonstrators that took place in East Timor's capital city, Dili, in 1991, according to the UPIU.
support for the Indonesian military have found allies in the UPIU workers.
But for all of the wrongs done them by Staley, the militant Staley unionists reserve their greatest ire for the leadership of the UPIU and AFL-CIO.
The Staley workers were never able to accept what they view as the betrayal of the leadership of the UPIU and AFL-CIO, however.
He is one of those who pin responsibility for the defeat on the UPIU and the AFL-CIO.