assigned to permanent missions, to which the VCDR applies.
Today, the VCDR contains, in Article 3, a list of five functions of
This action is also compatible with the provisions of Article 9(1) of the VCDR which provides that:
The VCDR was ratified by the Islamic Republic of Iran on February 3, 1965, and also ratified by the United States of America on November 13, 1972.
206) Specifically, the VCDR
defines the premises of the mission as "the buildings and the land ancillary thereto, irrespective of ownership, used for the purposes of the mission including the residence of the head of the mission.
22) The purpose of the VCDR
"is not to benefit individuals but to ensure the efficient performance of the functions of diplomatic missions as representing States.
When a court attempts to determine whether a defendant is seeking immunity 'with respect to acts performed by such a person in the exercise of his functions,' VCDR
19) "A member of a mission, other than a diplomatic agent, permanently resident in, the United States for purposes of Article 38(2) of the VCDR
and Article 71(2) of the VCCR enjoys no privileges and immunities pursuant to the Vienna Conventions.
Accordingly, the United States argued that the district court must quash the writ of attachment on Iran's diplomatic properties, which both parties conceded were part of the Iranian embassy within the meaning of the VCDR
This expansive effect may occur because British law domestically implemented the customary law principle of Head of State Immunity through a statute governing the ordinary privileges and immunities of diplomats under the VCDR
10) The VCDR
states in relevant part that a "diplomatic agent shall enjoy immunity from the criminal jurisdiction of the receiving State .
under the VCDR
, customary international law, and state practice only for