The LBPTOP is a simplified VLBP that decreases the dimension of the feature vector by considering three orthogonal planes around the center pixels and calculating the binary number separately for each plane.
The conventional VLBP operator only takes the sign information of local differences into consideration.
To study the difference between each dynamic texture extraction method, we used the LBPTOP, VLBP, and CVLBP operators to extract dynamic texture for smoke detection respectively.
However, increasing the number of sample points P = 2 to P = 4 did not improve the DR for the VLBP operators.
In , the volume block for VLBP dynamic texture extraction contained 64 frames.