For example, Kanuka, Rourke and Laflamme (2007) reported several advantages of WIQ activities, including engaging students in structuring the collected information and providing them with the opportunity to identify their roles and responsibilities during the learning process.
They also pointed out that future studies should focus on the effects of WIQ approaches on the development of students' deep and meaningful knowledge.
It integrates three inseparable elements, that is, the "Problem-based learning mechanism" that guides the students to identify the target issue in depth via conducting a WIQ activity, the "Web-based learning environment" that enables the students to extend their knowledge via searching for information on the web, and the "Contextual Learning Approach" that guides the students to link the target issue to their daily life experiences.
In the first step of the WIQ activity, the students are asked to search for information on the web to answer the questions.
The students in the experimental group were instructed and guided to participate in the WIQ activity with the contextual learning, while those in the control group were instructed and guided to participate in the activity with the conventional approach.
Figure 2 shows the experimental procedure, which consists of three stages, that is, conducting the pre-tests and the pre-questionnaire, introduction to the tools and learning tasks, conducting WIQ activities, and conducting the post-tests and the post-questionnaire.
Abbreviations: BMI = body mass index, CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, OA = osteoarthritis, SF-36 = 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, WIQ
= Walking Impairment Questionnaire, WOMAC = Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities (Osteoarthritis Index).
The WIQ was self-administered according to study protocol at baseline, 16, 24, and 32 weeks.
The WIQ is a subjectively measured, self-administered instrument consisting of a 14-item survey with three subscales: walking distance (7 items), walking speed (4 items), and stair-climbing ability (3 items).
The WIQ measures an individual's mobility and degree of difficulty in performing the tasks.
Pearson r correlation coefficients were used for assessing the relationship between the WIQ distance, speed, and stair-climbing scores at baseline with selected measures, i.
Complete WIQ baseline data were available on 105 subjects.