Helms (1997) stated that Cronbach's alpha may not be an adequate measure of the WRIAS
because it is a multidimensional scale and Cronbach's alphas tend to be low for such scales.
Both the WRIAS
(Helms & Carter, 1990) and the RIAS-B (Parham & Helms, 1981) should be labeled as social attitudes scales when administered, to avoid participant reactivity (Helms & Cook, 1999).
(Helms & Carter, 1990) is a 50-item, 5-point Likert-type (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree) scale that assesses White racial identity attitudes as proposed by Helms (1984, 1990).
94) between the DIT and the Autonomy scale of the WRIAS
The 50 self-report items of the WRIAS
were developed by Helms and Carter (1990) to assess the five racial identity attitude statuses proposed by Helms (1984): (a) Contact, (b) Disintegration, (c) Reintegration, (d) Pseudo-Independence, and (e) Autonomy.
Items on the WRIAS
measure responses that are consistent with attitudes related to the six statuses of White racial identity development.
When the WRIAS
(Helms & Carter, 1990) was introduced to the mental health field, the psychometric characteristics were described in terms of scale norms and reliabilities, interscale correlations, and a preliminary factor analysis.
In response to Helms's (1990d) more recent postulation of the Immersion/Emersion racial identity status, Corbett, Helms, and Regan (1992) have developed an additional 10-item subscale for the WRIAS
to measure attitudes associated with that status.
There has been a great deal of controversy regarding the reliability and validity of the WRIAS
subscales (Alexander, 1993; Behrens, 1997; Bennett, Behrens, & Rowe, 1993; Helms, 1997).
Students who identified themselves as Black or African American received the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale (Helms, 1990a); those who identified themselves as neither White nor Black received the Cultural Identity Attitudes Scale (cited in Carter, Fretz, & Mahalik, 1986), and those who identified themselves as White received the WRIAS
(Helms & Carter, 1990).
Trainees' self-reported relational endeavors in Connection/Closeness, the MCI, and the WRIAS
were independent of multicultural desirability.
Helms (1996) proposed a new way of scoring the WRIAS
that would yield profiles for each individual participant.