The themes are as follows: (a) Whiteness as oppressive, (b) reconstructing White identity, (c) antiracism as essential to a positive self-concept, (d) WRID as ongoing and nonlinear, (e) struggles to make lifestyle decisions that honor antiracist beliefs, and (f) struggles with relationships.
Participants' experiences and perspectives seem to both extend and contradict what is currently understood about WRID.
Helms's (1990, 1995) theory of WRID has focused on how Whites perceive and interact with people of color, with little description about how Whites may define their own and others' WRIs (Leach et al.
This trajectory of WRID is consistent with the idea that "the general developmental issue for Whites is the abandonment of entitlement" (Helms, 1995, p.
Counselor educators seeking to support White students in racial identity development may want to present a more descriptive, albeit potentially disconcerting, picture of WRID.
In congruence with findings in our study, Miller and Fellows (2007) asserted that WRI may not develop in a sequential manner and that identity models may need reformulation and reconsideration to allow for greater variability in understanding WRID and its related dilemmas.
Finally, in regard to the call for presenting antiracist role models in an educational manner (Tatum, 1994), findings in our study suggest the need to present WRID and White role models in a way that reflects complex, positive and negative aspects of White identity.
If Arkansas' underground water supply still had the recharge capacity it had 400 years ago, the urgency faced by Grand Prairie landowners and farmers today would hardly exist," says WRID Board Chairman Tommy Hillman of Carlisle says.
The WRID's Grand Prairie Area Demonstration Project would "divert water from the the White River through a series of canals and pipelines to area landowners," the WRID says.
The WRID also says diverting water will improve economic conditions in the area.