The 3 participants failed to respond correctly during the XEF transfer test (see Table 5).
Indeed, in the XEF test, Joro selected in the presence of X2 the same comparison as in its absence, and in the presence of X1 he selected the alternative comparison; that was just one of the two possibilities.
One implication of this analysis is that responding "correctly" to the XEF test would not indicate transfer of specific functions.
Thus, participants received the XEF test (Phase 12, see Table 1) immediately after learning the XAB conditional discriminations (Phase 8).
In this study, only the phases with the AB and XAB conditional discriminations and the XEF test were administered.
Elea's performance in the XEF test was similar to the performance of Joro in Study 4.
Thus, these participants responded on the XCD test as Elea did in the XEF test of the present study.
The lack of transfer in the XEF test observed in Study 3 suggests that establishing five-term contingencies is necessary for learning and transferring contextual control.