YKDYukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Alaska)
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On the YKD, blood (n = 61) and feathers (n = 3) were collected from nesting individuals or nests from the Kilbuk Mountains, Aropuk Lake, Kigigak Island, and Hock Slough, during mark-recapture studies (see Schamber et al.
1998); however, six samples (three each from YKD and Queen Maud Gulf) failed to yield a product.
Many individuals, including the authors of this paper, collected data on Sabine's Gull nesting aggregations between 1986 and 2013, as part of a much larger study on the nesting biology of waterbirds in an area centered on Hazen Bay, on the YKD of western Alaska, at 61.
Finally, although observers did not attempt to delineate the full extent of any colonies divided by the straight line boundaries used in the randomized nest plot study, the large area of the plots and generally small size of the Sabine's Gull nesting aggregations on the YKD probably meant that the size of relatively few aggregations would have been underestimated.
For the YKD, historical evidence of impacts of large storms comes from oral records of the indigenous Cup'ik and Yup'ik cultures in western Alaska (Fienup-Riordan 1999, 2007).
The YKD is one of the largest deltaic systems in North America, and the Yukon River alone has the fifth largest hydrologic output, discharging an average of 60 million tons of sediment annually (Brabets et al.
pacifica gradually move to coastal staging areas, particularly along the YKD and within estuaries on the Alaska Peninsula (Holmes, 1971; Gill and Jorgensen, 1979; Gill and Handel, 1990; Handel and Gill, 1992; Gill et al.
By monitoring the movements of radio-marked Dunlin, we sought to determine (1) how long individuals stay on the YKD; (2) whether birds staging on the YKD maintain a sedentary residency in a single embay-ment or move southward along the coast during the autumn staging period; (3) whether birds move from the YKD to staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula before migrating to wintering areas; and (4) whether patterns of movement are dependent upon age, date of capture, or body mass.
Our fourth model included an initiation date covariate added to the best model (site-year + linear-age) of those we initially considered because a seasonal decline in nest success was detected in other sympatric nesting ducks on the YKD (Flint and Grand, 1996; Grand and Flint, 1997; Flint et al.
81, predicting that the breeding population of long-tailed ducks on the YKD was declining by nearly 19% each year.
We programmed most PTTs to transmit less frequently in autumn and winter and more frequently in spring, when we wished to monitor return dates to the YKD (Hupp et al.
At a single colony location for black brant on the YKD, it was noted that videography for estimating the abundance of nests (Anthony et al.