YNAOYamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Russia)
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In the YNAO on the Yamal Peninsula, reindeer herding survived from the Soviet period with the least amount of damage compared to the lifestyles of other indigenous cultures elsewhere in Russia (Golovnev and Osherenko, 1999; Stammler, 2005).
The immediate objectives were to characterize the effects of two to three decades of industrial development of oil and gas on traditional livelihoods and the supporting society in the YNAO and NAO.
Today the YNAO is numerically the world's most productive reindeer herding region, with 631000 domestic reindeer herded by approximately 14500 nomadic Nenets and to a lesser extent by Komi and Khanty families (data as of 2006, A.