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In striving for racial unity, Crossing the Boundary Fence virtually ignores the political strife between ZANU PF and ZAPU before and after independence.
The allegiance to Joshua Nkomo's ZAPU or Mugabe's ZANU meant a peasant consciousness that pitted one ethnic grouping against the other.
While there are other dynamics that were responsible for conflict and tension in the nationalist movement, the popular progovernment perception is that manipulative white interests were largely to blame because they set the ZANU (PF) government upon the opposition ZAPU (PF).
You see, the understanding between ZANU and ZAPU at the Unity Accord in 1987 was that there would be two vice presidents, one drawn from ZAPU and the other from ZANU.
When the ZANU-controlled army moves into Nitram farm, ZIPRA war records are confiscated and as a result the history of ZAPU is lost and that of Zimbabwe written from the perspective of ZANLA: "Among the party's property removed from one Nitram farm were all the complete historical records of Zapu and of Zipra, in exile and at home, including all lists of our casualties.
Six weeks later (although only a passing reference to the end of June shows that it is not later on the same day), Todd meets the Minister of Justice, Emmerson Mnangagwa, in order to ask when former ZIPRA fighters who were still being detained as Patriotic Front Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU (PF)) dissidents would be named as beneficiaries of the 1988 amnesty which had followed the 1987 unity agreement between the ruling party, the Zimbabwe African National Union, Patriotic Front (ZANU (PF)), and Nkomo's ZAPU (PF).
But as time went on, you know I was also growing up--two years later, I met him again, this was after ZANLA had joined with ZAPU to form ZIPRA which was the fighting force of ZANU and ZAPU.
Even the murderous Gukurahundi campaign - when the Zimbabwean army's notorious 5th Brigade was unleashed to repress ZAPU opposition in Matebeleland - failed to really dent Mugabe's heroic and progressive image.
The African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa, FRELIMO in Mozambique, ZANU and ZAPU in Zimbabwe, SWAPO in Namibia, and the PAIGC in Cape Verde are just six of the nationalist movements in Africa under whose patriotic banner thousands of women played their part in the independence war effort.
The Rhodesian bush war was at an end, but Robert Mugabe's ZANU forces were pitted against Joshua Nkomo's ZAPU for control of Zimbabwe's Matabeleland and hundreds of thousands of refugees streamed over the northern border into Botswana.
Of course, there were times when South Africa and Ian Smith's Rhodesia attacked, invaded and accused Botswana of "harbouring terrorists", meaning members of the African National Congress, or other liberation movements, such as Zimbabwe's ZAPU.
In those days, it was clear that President Kaunda wanted ZAPU to be treated by the Frontline States as Zimbabwe's most favoured liberation movement.
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- Zappert counting chamber
- Zappert, Julius
- Zapus hudsonius
- Zapus trinotatus
- Zaqaziq, Al-
- Zaqaziq, Az
- Zara (disambiguation)
- Zara Dolukhanova
- Zara Yakub
- Zara Yaqob
- Zarabianie W Sieci
- Zarafa Collaboration Plattform
- Zarafshan River