According to CCJPZ (1997) the Dumbutshena Commission of Inquiry was set up to investigate the violence that occurred at Entumbane in Bulawayo and other demobilisation camps across the country following the 1981 clashes between ZANLA and ZIPRA
The conclusion that one can therefore draw is that because 'ZANLA deployed few women lighters inside Zimbabwe' (Nhongo-Simbanegavi 2000:127) and its ZIPRA
counterpart did not even deploy its female cadres to the front (Bonde 1990:5), those who would become writers did not see them.
There is historical evidence which attest to the presence of female combatants amongst ZANLA and ZIPRA
forces in Mozambique.
guerrilla friend, Mqoqi refuses to join the ZANU PF led government and joins some former ZIPRA
cadres opposed to Shona hegemony.
Cold War politics played into the conflict, with the USSR supporting ZIPRA
and Communist China providing support to ZANLA.
It includes early forms of Ndebele resistance to Rhodesian rule, the manifold ways that Ndebele ethnicity was created, the performance of ZIPRA
during the war of liberation, and the atrocities of the 1980s.
Vilified by both their former ZIPRA
and ZANLA comrades and the world press as turn coats and running dogs, at best the presence Pfumo re Vanhu elements in an area did no more than hamper insurgent activities.
The growing effectiveness of Nkomo's ZIPRA
was of interest to Robert Mugabe, leader of the other Zimbabwe liberation movement (ZANU), when he traveled to Havana in October 1978.
You have already agreed that members of the security forces should be non-partisan, even if they came from ZANLA and ZIPRA
, the military wings of ZANU and ZAPU.
In the post-1980 period and particularly at the height of tension between ZANU and ZAPU (the two most active parties during liberation war) prior to the unity accord of 1987, the distinction between their respective former military wings ZANLA and ZIPRA
was a military wing of ZAPU and had guerilla fighters with several military bases in Botswana and Zambia.
Unconvinced by the hasty attempt to unify with parties they had long warred with, several ZIPRA
fighters either refused to join or deserted the ZNA, and set out to be heard by launching a dissident reign of terror across the Matabeleland region in the south-western part of the country.