In addition, He and Ng (1998) argue that about 25 percent of the Japanese multinational corporations show significant positive exchange rate
Given that macroeconomic models characterize exchange rates
as a way of transmitting asymmetric shocks, we analyse the role played by the exchange rate
as a stabilization tool in open economies through a macroeconomic model describing monetary union.
In response to these failures, a number of scholars have attempted to predict exchange rate
fluctuations with new approaches.
The market's forecast for the RMB exchange rate
has focused predominately on the RMB-dollar cross rate, ignoring the Chinese currency's trade-weighted exchange rates
(or nominal effective exchange rate
and real effective exchange rate
This short review essay describes my research agenda on real exchange rate
determination, the Penn effect, and the Balassa-Samuelson theory, using a new data set of European price levels at a disaggregated level.
It should be noted that the priority is to avoid excessive exchange rate
volatility, which is one of the jobs of the central bank.
On the other hand, the exchange rate
depreciation has alone added Rs.
Managed floating exchange rate
is a regime in which exchange rate
fluctuates on daily basis but the central bank attempts to influence the exchange rate
by buying and selling currencies.
On July 9, Iran's central bank posted an official exchange rate
of 24,777 rials a dollar on its website, replacing the fixed rate of 12,260 rials, officially adopting a single rate.
The authors also find that the rate of international reserve accumulation tends to reduce the appreciation of the real exchange rate
in episodes of commodity price booms and busts.
a flexible exchange rate
need not be an unstable exchange rate
Empirical findings indicate significant impact of exchange rate
uncertainty on macroeconomic variables such as output, trade and investment.