DELTA] = prism diopter, CISS = Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey, exo = exophoria
, NFV = negative fusional vergence, NPC = near point of convergence, PFV = positive fusional vergence, VSAT = Visual Search and Attention Test.
Successful outcome was defined as alignment [less than or equal to] 10 PD esophoria or exophoria
at the last follow-up.
Berne  and Scheiman and Gallaway  both reported significantly higher exophoria
in the group with mTBI, which is consistent with the findings of the present study.
AC/A = accommodative convergence-to-accommodation, eso = esophoria, exo = exophoria
, Hyper = hyperphoria, NA = not applicable, NRA = negative relative accommodation, Ortho = orthophoria, PD = prism diopter, PRA = positive relative accommodation, SD = standard deviation, SEM = standard error of the mean.
25 for 38cm DV CT 3[DELTA] exophoria
NV CT 10[DELTA] exophoria
Near fixation disparity 2.
Although a decompensated exophoria
at near and a convergence insufficiency commonly occur together, they are not the same thing.
If the test in Image D reveals a low value when testing with Base Out prism, and there is a marked near exophoria
, which of the following would be the LEAST appropriate treatment?
The cases that are amenable to optometric management are those where there is a long-standing exophoria
that may be decompensating into an exotropia, perhaps owing to an increase in near visual tasks at school.
This is why, on average, the normal heterophoria is a small degree of esophoria for distance vision and exophoria
for near vision (Figure 1).
Another child with moderate or high levels of hyperopia may demonstrate excellent accommodation, near and distance VAs, have an exophoria
and be excelling in reading, writing, visuo-perceptual skills etc--that child may not need spectacle correction at all--partial or full.
Patients who have excessive myopia can also have strabismus, typically an exophoria
or exotropia, and they are more likely to develop early cataracts.
Cover test on this child, at near, with these spectacles on revealed a 10[DELTA] exophoria
with slow recovery.