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We conducted our study at six leks in the restinga ecosystem in lowland Atlantic forest, southeastern Brazil.
Adult male Black Grouse on lek Picture: ANDY HAY rspb-images
The researchers found that in the area where the two manakin species come together, females are attracted to yellow-collared males more than to white-collared males, but only when there are lots of other yellow males within leks.
The females raise the young alone and while males will return to their father's lek the female insists on finding another lek within 20 miles in search of a mate.
Because vocalizations of males on leks are a reliable indicator of presence of this species, a survey to determine location of active leks would provide valuable insight into current status of populations.
At one lek site in Russia in 1961, some 200 males were recorded - a figure which represents the largest number of makes ever recorded at one lek.
Male leks have raised theoretical puzzles, Turner says.
The evolution of leks through female choice: differential clustering and space utilization in six sympatric manakins.
Between 3am and 4am, the males gather at communal lek sites - the dance arenas of the bird world - and at dawn they perform their mating displays to attract as many females as possible.
Each cluster, or lek, however, has a different dialect, although to human ears the songs all are "very monotonous and staccato," according to Gaunt.
The habitat requirements for this species, to our knowledge, have not been quantified by examining the landscape characteristics around leks (breeding display sites).