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1995) indicated that both varus and valgus positions of the knee can load the ACL particularly when accompanied by sagittal and transverse plane motions.
The majority of subjects oscillated between varus and valgus throughout knee motion in the sagittal plane.
Based on the current results, fatigue appears to result in increased frontal plane knee motion in both varus and valgus directions, increased EMG amplitudes of the lower extremity muscles, particularly the hamstrings, and decreased peak ground reaction force magnitudes during landing.
Varus and valgus laxity testing should be performed in full extension and then at 30[degrees] of flexion to isolate the collateral ligaments.
Discussion of the knee is continued in an article on sagittal/coronal biomechanics and varus and valgus knee resulting in lower limb malalignment.
The GRF not only has an effect in the sagittal plane, but it also exerts an effect in the coronal plane, where it wields varus and valgus forces on the knee.
The investigators concluded that varus and valgus alignment causes increased rates of progression of medial and lateral OA, and the rate of progression of joint space loss is directly proportional to the initial amount of varus or valgus alignment.
For patients with an initial grade of 3, the odds ratio for risk of progression was 10-fold for both varus and valgus knees.
The configuration of the joints provide for much of the stability of the elbow against varus and valgus stress at the extremes of extension and flexion.
We defined the angle in varus and valgus stress as "varus angle" and "valgus angle," and the sum of varus angle and valgus angle as "sum of varus-valgus angle.
Intraoperative ligament balance for the varus and valgus direction was carefully measured in extension with the trial prosthesis of the femur and tibia in place.