This model of PD was created by four intraperitoneal injections of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
(MPTP) (4x20 mg/kg, at 12 h intervals).
Among models of PD, the involvement of the drug 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
(MPTP) is most widely used.
Systemic administration of the pesticides rotenone and paraquat as well as the neurotoxicant MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
), which are inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (complex I), induces neuropathologic and behavioral changes in rodents similar to human PD [16, 17].
This same review found that the neurotoxicity of several toxic agents, including polychlorinated biphenyls, MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
)--and the insecticide endosulfan--was decreased by quercetin in vivo.
It has been shown that CYP2E1 is involved in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
(MPTP) induced mouse model of PD [108,109].
In this report, a group of drug users were exposed at relatively young ages to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
(MPTP) as a contaminant in street-drugs.
Vila et al., "Blockade of microglial activation is neuroprotective in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
mouse model of Parkinson disease," Journal of Neuroscience, vol.
(MPTP)-treated mice like PD patients present reactive microglia and astrogliosis in the nigrostriatal system [8, 9].
(7) Exposure to the insecticide rotenone, (8) the herbicide paraquat (9) and the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
(MPTP) (10) have been shown experimentally to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent parkinsonism in laboratory animals.
The Parkinson's disease mice model was induced by 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
Hydrochloride (MPTP-HC1, 30mg/kg daily for 5 days).
More than 60 natural and commercial compounds are reported to inhibit complex I activity, among them certain pesticides, agrochemicals, and MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
), a neurotoxin that induces parkinsonism in humans; thus, exposure to these compounds may be harmful (3).