Seven days after DEN administration, the rats were treated during four days with the promoter agent 2-AAF, and a partial hepatectomy was done 10 days after DEN administration.
HCC: Hepatocellular carcinoma MRHM: Modified resistant hepatocyte model DEN: N-Diethylnitrosamine 2-AAF: 2-Acetylaminofluorene GGT: Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase EGFR: Epidermal growth factor receptor PI3K: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase MAP: Mitogen-activated protein NT: Nontreated group Jak1: Janus tyrosine kinase 1.
However, factors such as 2-AAF and CCL4 induce hepatocyte injury to limit the regenerative ability of liver.
These results had shown that liver injury was successfully induced by 2-AAF treatment combined with PH, followed by excessive apoptosis in liver tissues.
Although the aforementioned evidences are not enough to completely explain the mechanism of hepatoprotective action of EZP, they can provide the basis for the preventive and therapeutics effect of EZP on liver injury induced by 2-AAF treatment combined with PH.
The possible effects of quercetin glucuronides on N-acetylation of 2-AF in human acute myeloid HL-60 leukemia cells were examined by HPLC assessing the percentage of 2-AAF. The mean [+ or -] SD (standard deviation) of %2-AAF co-treated with or without quercetin glucuronides with 2-AF in intact cells is given in Figure 4.
The decrease in 2-AAF production at 10 [micro]M quercetin glucuronides was possibly due to toxicity and loss of viable cells.
Similar alterations have been reported in the pituitary from male rats one to several days after partial hepatectomy (40,41) and from the male rats receiving chronic feeding of liver carcinogen 2-AAF
(12) or 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (42).