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Focusing on energy-transfer, they measured the impact on cell lines in a laboratory of 7 substances, the clinically-approved drag stiripentol, 3 natural products--caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE), silibinin and ascorbic acid--and experimental pharmaceuticals, such as actinonin, FK866 and 2-DG.
While they found that natural antibiotic actinonin and the compound FK866 were the most potent, the natural products also inhibited CSC formation, with vitamin C outperforming 2-DG by tenfold in terms of potency.
The strongest increase in ONL cell death was observed after treatment with the glycolysis inhibitor 2-DG (Fig.
In the ONL, only the 2-DG treatment caused a significant reduction of nuclear rows (Fig.
Louis, MO, USA) and/or 2-DG (5 mM) (Sigma-Aldrich) for 24 hr, or with rapamycin (20 to 80 nM) (Calbiochem, San Diego, MO, USA) for 24 hr.
We investigated whether 2-DG reduced insulin synthesis which had been increased by melatonin via autophagy in rat insulinoma INS-1E cells.
Specifically, experimental studies of neuronal gene therapy have demonstrated that induction of brain GLUT1 overexpression during ischemic insult was associated with a significant increase of glucose transport using 2-DG autoradiography [62], as well as improved neuronal survival [63, 64].
After first determining that in vitro cancer cells incubated with 2-DG and exposed to low concentrations of ABT-263/737 died, the researchers conducted animal studies.
They found that when 2-DG was injected into animals, it predominantly accumulated in cancer cells that were subsequently killed by an injection of ABT-263/737.
Clinical trials in patients with malignant brain tumours (glioblastoma multiforme) using a hypofractionted radiotherapy protocol combined with 2-DG have been very encouraging (134).
Effects of 2-DG on glycolysis, proliferation kinetics and radiation response of human cancer cells.
Chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and berberine cause a modest, but significant, increase in 2-DG transport into the L6 myotubes and their performance is comparable to both the commercial oral hypoglycemic drugs.