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2-PAM2-Pralidoxime (enzyme that reverses cholinesterase inhibition)
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Both atropine and 2-PAM chloride are available to medical professionals as spring-loaded auto-injector pressurized syringes for IM administration (see Figure 4).
A newer model, the ATNAA (Antidote Treatment Nerve Agent Auto-Injector), (1) has both the atropine and the 2-PAM chloride in one syringe, allowing for simplified administration.
Consequently 2-PAM chloride becomes ineffective as an antidote.
Also shown is the curve corresponding to the 4-QAM scheme (which coincides with the curve of the 2-PAM and 2-PSK schemes).
The coding gain that appears in the table corresponds to the amount of decibels that can be reduced in [E.sub.b]/[N.sub.0] to achieve a BER [10.sup.-5] with respect to the 2-PAM scheme (Forney, 2005).
None of the 10 bats showed significant reactivation of ChE activity after incubation with 2-PAM.
Brain ChE activity and reactivation testing.--Of the 332 bat brains tested six (1.8%) showed significant recovery of brain ChE function after incubation with 2-PAM. As part of this survey, 33 of the 332 bats whose brains were tested for ChE activity and reactivation were also analyzed for pesticide body residues.
Animals treated with atropine and 2-PAM have very good clinical cure even though suffered with critical symptoms of toxicity.
For example, for 28 nm CMOS technology, [T.sub.mux] [approximately equal to] 0.05 ns and [T.sub.add] [approximately equal to] 0.10 ns; therefore, the maximum data rates with P = 1 for 2-PAM and 4-PAM are ~17.8 and 18.8 Gb/s, respectively.
As it is shown in Section 4.3, no timing issues have been observed with L = 30 and P = 32 for 2-PAM with [f.sub.clock] = 312.5 MHz by using 28 nm CMOS technology.