32-QAM32-State Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
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The major rain effect occurred for 23 min/day under QPSK, whereas it reached 27, 36, and 38 min/day under the 8-PSK, 16-QAM, and 32-QAM schemes, as shown in Figure 10(b).
The amount of losses was not significant, and the PER occurred only under the 32-QAM scheme, as shown in Figure 11.
The ERS output shows that trees significantly affect PER performance under the 32-QAM scheme, as shown in Figure 12.
Complete blocking of transmission data occurred when the car was under the bridge even for small crossing period under the 32-QAM and 16-QAM schemes, whereas a higher PER was reached under the 8-PSK modulation scheme.