The researcher also said that some type of additives, like 4-methylimidazole
, can also increase the risk of cancer.
A National Toxicology Program of the United Stated reported that class IV caramel (produced in the presence of both sulfite and ammonium compound) may cause cancer and can increase the incidence of certain lung tumors due to the byproducts formation of these compounds called 4-methylimidazole
(4MI), a known activator of CAs and potential proton acceptor, was used as a chemical rescue test in kinetic and MD experiments.
The procedure applied in the synthesis of [L.sub.A] was also used for the synthesis of LC by replacing imidazole and bromoethanol with 4-methylimidazole
(10 mmol, 0.82 g) and 3-bromopropionic acid (22 mmol, 3.366 g), respectively.
At neutral to basic pH solutions there are two tautomers: 4-methylimidazole
and 5-methylimidazole exist in equilibrium .
Buyukgungor, Syntheses, Crystal Structures, Spectral and Thermal Analysis and Biological Activities of Copper (II)-pyridine-2, 5-dicarboxylate Complexes with 4-methylimidazole
, imidazole, and 3, 4- dimethylpyridine, Solid State Sci., 11, 1908 (2009).
Research published in PLOS One in February suggested a byproduct of some types of caramel color, 4-methylimidazole
(4MEI), may be carcinogenic.
For instance, the FDA is currently investigating caramel coloring in soft drinks and other foods after Consumer Reports tested them for chemical 4-methylimidazole
(4-Mel), an impurity formed at low levels in some caramel coloring during manufacturing.
The chemical is 4-methylimidazole
, or 4-Mel, which can form during the cooking process and, as a result, may be found in trace amounts in many foods.
For instance, there is evidence that cochineal extract may cause allergic reactions and asthma, (41), (42) and caramel coloring came under fire when it emerged that it can contain 4-methylimidazole
(4-MEI), an animal carcinogen sometimes produced as a manufacturing by-product.
Coca-Cola has recently switched to a new manufacturing process in America to bring down the level of the suspect chemical, 4-methylimidazole
(4-MI), but the precaution has not yet been taken in other countries such as Britain, where its products are the nation's biggest selling soft drink with sales of 1.1 billion pounds a year.
The change is meant to reduce the amount of a chemical called 4-methylimidazole
, or 4-MI, which in January was added to the list of chemicals covered by California's Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986, also known as Proposition 65.