MCI requires sensors and platforms adaptable to any operating domain, A2AD
environments, and contested electromagnetic spectrum conditions while remaining capable of collecting against signatures generated by evolving threats.
These bases will eventually house systems that will expand the reach and increase the layers of China's A2AD
capabilities and the range of China's own power projection capabilities.
In Admiral Richardson's article, the CNO comments that "the A2AD
problem is currently well understood--challenging, but understood." On the operational level, he is right.
Credible security guarantees depend on allies and adversaries believing that American ground forces can fight and win on the ground in a theater dominated by precision and A2AD
China's integrated air defense system and A2AD
system requires networks for example, which is an opportunity for cyberspace exploitation.
Employing the concept, the US seeks to create a joint force capable of effectively handling security threats across all domains air, land, sea, space and cyberspace so that its armed services can better counter the A2AD
Some critics have charged that the Air-Sea Battle concept is driving China to increase its A2AD
capabilities, often pointing to recently fielded weapons that could threaten US aircraft carriers.
This model runs counter to the way ships operate and the need to have access to these services when operating without satellite links as in an Anti-Access Area-Denial (A2AD
The areas we refer to loosely as A2AD
for Anti-Access and Area Denial.
It fails to recognize that China sees its military modernization initiatives and pursuit of an anti-access/area denial (A2AD
) strategy -- securing its home waters and strategic maritime corridors against the intrusions of adversaries -- as defensive, and, at least to some degree, as a response to U.S.
naval power to operate effectively--but beyond the range of China's growing anti-access and area denial (A2AD
) arsenal as symbolized by the long-range DF-21 anti-ship missile.
In the longer term, stealthy deep-penetration strike assets will be developed, probably including large optionally-manned bombers, to defeat opponents with anti-access/area-denial (A2AD