The ACFD may also issue a direction to the opponent to remove all infringing materials from its premises including any signboards if the dispute involves the opponent's unauthorised use of complainant's trademark and the opponent may be required to sign an undertaking to the effect that it will permanently refrain from illegally using the trademark of the complainant without the necessary authorization to do so.
If the opponent is not prepared to comply with the ACFD's requirements (as stated above), and continues with the infringing activities, then the ACFD will forward the matter to the Bureau of Investigation and Public Prosecution (the " Bureau ") with its recommendations.
The procedure followed at the ACFD is somewhat similar to the procedure followed by Department of Economic Development (DED) in the UAE in the matter of administrative complaints filed against trademark infringement issues, with the main procedural differences as follows:
a) While processing an administrative complaint filed before the DED, the officials will allow the brand owner and/or his legal representative to accompany them while they inspect or raid the premise of the opponent and confiscate the infringing products, whereas the ACFD will not allow the same and the brand owner or his representative will not have access to the proceedings followed by the ACFD, although they will get updates on their complaint from the ACFD office from time to time.
The DED will normally issue a fine against the opponent if they found the opponent is in breach, whereas the ACFD will not normally issue a fine against the opponent, although they impose other sanctions (see above).
Where it is necessary to file a criminal or a civil case before the Grievance Board against trademark infringements in Saudi Arabia, the brand owner has to first file a complaint before the ACFD and get the case referred to Bureau to obtain a finding in the case confirming that there has been a violation of the applicable trademark laws.
ToxT, an AraC-like activator protein, directly activates transcription of the ctxAB, tcpABQCRDSTEF, tcpI, tagA orf23 mop tagD, aldA, acfD and acfA operons (7) (Fig.
The tcpA, acfA, acfD, tagA and aldA promoters were only able to tolerate slight changes in spacing ([+ or -] 1 to 2 bp) between the proximal toxbox and the -35 region of RNAP.
Virstatin inhibits the dimerization of the N-terminus of ToxT, and thus prevents ToxT-dependent transcription activation of the ctxAB, tcpA, acfD and tagA promoters (9, 26) It is tempting to speculate that virstatin is a synthetic mimic of the effect of bile components on ToxT.
Available data imply that ToxT needs to dimerize in order to activate genes (ctxA, tcpA, acfA, acfD, tcpI), but it can bind as a monomer to repress (msh) and, possibly, even activate (aldA) other genes.