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Pregnancy poses a significant risk for the fetus and the mother in certain forms of ACHD while others could be well-tolerated with outcomes comparable to general population.
Cardiovascular drugs during pregnancy in patients with ACHD:
Classes of cardiovascular drugs used in ACHD patients are: anticoagulants, antiarrhythmic agents, antihypertensive agents and heart failure medications.
Selected drug classes used during pregnancy in ACHD patients are summarized in Table 2 (49).
As discussed in the previous section, primary and secondary ovarian failure and early menopause seem to be more common in certain ACHD subgroups (42).
Erectile dysfunction is frequent among ACHD patients.
ACHD patients face many problems related to their care in many levels.
Studies showed that denial is more common in ACHD patients and had impact on adherence to medical therapy (54).
Unfortunately, only a minority of the patients with terminal ACHD are shown to benefit from specialized palliative care and similarly a small proportion were involved in attentive end-of-life discussions, previously (58).