The four types of WOE were constructed as shown in Figure 1: AN, ACN, ANCT, and ACNW.
The ACNW group had the lowest extraneous load and the greatest germane load (see Table 4).
The WOE based on ACNW was found to most effectively reduce the extraneous load and increase the germane load, consistent with the multimedia principle, the modality principle, and the spatial-contiguity principle.
In terms of the effects on training of the WOE types used in pre-training, the AN group had the greatest intrinsic and extraneous loads, and the ACNW group had the lowest intrinsic and extraneous loads.
Although the results were not statistically supported, the ACNW group exhibited lower intrinsic and extraneous loads and a greater germane load during the pre-training and the training, as shown in Table 6.
Of the four WOE types used in the pre-training phase, ACNW was found to be the most effective in reducing the intrinsic and extraneous loads during the training phase.
The ACNW group exhibited the greatest comprehension of the learning content during the pre-training phase, whereas the ANCT group showed the least comprehension (see Table 8).
As in the pre-training test, the ACNW group received the highest score for comprehension of the content during the training phase.
Of the four types of WOE used in pre-training, the WOE based on ACNW had the greatest positive influence on the comprehension of the content during the pre-training phase and the training phase.