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ACOUSArctic Climate Observations Using Underwater Sound
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In the High Arctic, the 1994 Transarctic Acoustic Propagation (TAP) experiment (Mikhalevsky et al., 1999) and the Arctic Climate Observations Using Underwater Sound (ACOUS) experiment in 1998-99 (Mikhalevsky et al., 2001) observed basin-scale warming of the Arctic Intermediate Water (AIW).
In the ACOUS experiment in 1998-99, transmissions from a source deployed in Franz Victoria Strait to receivers in the Lincoln Sea and the Chukchi Sea measured continued basin-scale warming of the AIW and detected a rapid warming in a broadly dispersed mass of Atlantic water with a maximum temperature that exceeded 2.5[degrees]C crossing the Nansen Basin north of the Franz Victoria Strait in August-December 1999 (Mikhalevsky et al., 2001).