ACTRSAgency Candidate System
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The primer sequences and product size were as follows: ActR IA forward 5'-GATGAGAAGTCATGGTTCAGG-3', reverse
5'ThATGTTTGGCCTTTGTTGATC3', 651 bp; ActR IB forward 5'-CTGGCTGTCCGTCATGATGCA-3', reverse 5'-CAATTCGCTCTCAGAGTCTCC3', 683 bp; ActR IIA forward 5'-ACCAGTGTTGATGTGGATCTT-3', reverse 5'-TACAGGTCCATCTGCAGCAGT3', 456 bp; ActR IIB forward 5,-TTCTGCTGCTGTGAAGGCAAC-3', reverse 5'-GAGGTCGCTCCTCAGCAATAC-37, 699 bp; Smad2 forward 57-TAGGTGGGGAAGTTTTTGCT-3', reverse 5'-TTTTCATGGGACTTGATTGG-37, 411 bp; Smad3 forward 57-GGGCTCCCTCATGTCATCTA-3', reverse 5'-GGCTCGCAGTAGGTAACTGG37, 443 bp; Smad4 forward 57-CCCAGGATCAGTAGGTGGAA-3', reverse 5'-CCATGCCTGACAAGTTCTGA-3', 452bp; Smad7 forward 5,-TCCTGCTGTGCAAAGTGTTC3', reverse 5'-TTGTTGTCCGAATTGAGCTG-3', 447bp; [beta]-actin forward 57 -CT T CTACAAT GAGCT GCGTG-37, reverse 5,-TCATGAGGTAGTCAGTCAGG-37, 305 bp.
We found that activin A increased the expression levels of most ActR and Smad transcripts compared to the control with the exception of ActR IIA mRNA levels, which were decreased, and Smad2 and Smad4 mRNA levels, which remained unchanged.
15d-PG[J.sub.2] suppresses activin-induced ActR and Smad expression, down-regulates IL-6 production, and up-regulates IL-8 production, due to NF-[kappa]B inhibition as well as to the negative regulation of MAPK activation in HepG2 cells.